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Trinity Vey

Thu, 02/24/2022 - 14:34

Hi Pierce,

Thanks for a great summary of last week’s MGR! I really enjoyed our discussion with Dr. Bai and I think you did an excellent job describing non-inferiority trials and some of the current challenges with antibiotics.

I wanted to expand on what Dr. Bai highlighted as one of the main contributors to antibiotic resistance - antibiotic use in agriculture. With increasing demand for animal protein, antibiotics have become commonly used in livestock for the treatment of diseases, as well as prophylactically and for growth promotion (Manyi-Loh et al., 2018). This usage has supported the development of resistant bacterial strains in animals. In many countries, particularly developing countries, the use of non-essential antibiotics in animal feed to support growth is largely unregulated. Increased antibiotic usage in both humans and animals ultimately results in antibiotic pollution from waste streams, creating selective pressure for antibiotic resistance in the environment (Manyi-Loh et al., 2018). Furthermore, animal products including meat, eggs, and milk can be contaminated with antibiotic residues, which contribute to resistance in human gut flora upon consumption (Manyi-Loh et al., 2018). As such, I’m wondering if anyone has thoughts on how the use of antibiotics can be better regulated in agriculture globally, to help combat the antibiotic resistance crisis?

Thank you again for a great discussion and summary, looking forward to continuing this conversation!


Manyi-Loh, C., Mamphweli, S., Meyer, E., & Okoh, A. (2018). Antibiotic Use in Agriculture and Its Consequential Resistance in Environmental Sources: Potential Public Health Implications. Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 23(4), E795.

Trinity Vey

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