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Hi Samantha and Nolan,

Thank you so much for the kind words and insightful post. Regarding your comments on sex and atrial fibrillation (AF) I find it absolutely fascinating that it is still poorly understood today [1]. I agree with you, Nolan and Samantha, in that the literature strong indicates the sex differences with AF are related to the adverse outcomes of antiarrhythmic drugs [2]. However, one of the interesting things I came across was related to health reporting. They did an observational study reviewing self-reporting on sex differences. They found that women self-report poorer outcomes than men as well. They saw that women were more likely to report poor outcomes to not only physiological outcomes, but also mental health outcomes [3]. So, Nolan, you brought up a great topic and sadly, it’s still very unclear. However, based on both of these studies, it is evident that women have poor outcomes in both physical changes caused by AF, as well as mental health outcomes.

Thank you for sharing, Nolan, and Samantha.


[1] Raisa L. Silva, Emily N. Guhl, Andrew D. Althouse, Brandon Herbert, Michael Sharbaugh, Utibe R. Essien, Leslie R.M. Hausmann, Jared W. Magnani,
Sex differences in atrial fibrillation: patient-reported outcomes and the persistent toll on women. American Journal of Preventive Cardiology. Volume 8. 2021,100252, ISSN 2666-6677,

[2] Andrea M. Russo, Emily P. Zeitler, Anna Giczewska, Adam P. Silverstein,
Hussein R. Al-Khalidi, Yong-Mei Cha, Kristi H. Monahan,Tristram D. Bahnson, Daniel B. Mark, Douglas L. Packer, Jeanne E. Poole, and For the CABANA Investigators. Circulation. 2021;143:661–67227 Jan 2021

[3] Linn Arvidsson Strømnes, Helene Ree, Knut Gjesdal, and Inger Ariansen. Sex Differences in Quality of Life in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Systematic Review. Journal of the American Heart Association. 2019;8:e010992 Apr 2019

Kyla Tozer

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